Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Mycotoxins A Hidden Poison in Foods - 2200 Words

Mycotoxins: A Hidden Poison in Foods (Research Proposal Sample) Content: Research Proposal- NutritionName:Instructor:Course:Date:Project TitleMycotoxins: A hidden poison in foodsBackground to the research issueMycotoxins are defined as poisonous chemical metabolites that are produced by filamentous fungi (Bennett Klich, 2003). Some of the mycotoxin compounds are found in grains and seeds hence can cause diseases, disorders and even death to oblivious consumers who include human beings and animals. Mycotoxins found in food have disastrous effects often leading to severe illness or chronic long-term conditions and immune deficiency (Wild Gong, 2010). When detected, mycotoxins cause heavy economic losses to stakeholders in the agricultural industry who include producers of food, processors, distributers and the consumers of the food.There are five groups of mycotoxins that are found in food and these include: deoxynivalenol or nivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin, fumonisins and aflatoxins (Murphy et al, 2006). Of major interest are aflatoxin s which are commonly found in grains such as maize and peanuts and fumonisins, both of which are common in tropical developing countries where they have a significant impact on human health.Mycotoxins are a cause of great concern because they occur in very small quantities which therefore make them easily undetectable in foodstuffs. They are therefore hidden poisons in food with very serious repercussions to human and animal health. Most of the discussion about mycotoxins revolves around the foods that are likely to be afflicted with the fungi, its chemistry, prevention measures but the idea of the fungi being a hidden poison in food is minimally discussed.With this background into the research issue, the main purpose of this research is to investigate how the food that human beings consume may be unknowingly poisoned and highlight the effects of the mycotoxins to human beings. The results of this research will try to identify ways of identifying mycotoxins in food to prevent illnes ses and deaths among human beings and animals.The research questionHow can mycotoxins be detected in food and what are the awareness and preventive measures which can be taken to minimize casualties that arise from the consumption of food containing mycotoxins?Justification for the proposed researchMycotoxins in food have fatal consequences to both human beings and animals. This is particularly devastating considering that they are lethal in very small quantities normally measures in parts per billion (ppb) or parts per million (ppm). Mycotoxins naturally cause immune deficiencies and protect the filamentous fungi from attack by other microorganisms. Toxicological effects of mycotoxins have been experimentally proven in laboratories using animals and they have yielded results that have raised a reason for concern among researchers.Aflatoxins which is a group of mycotoxins is a well identified cause of liver cancer in addition to jeopardizing immunity in laboratory and infected anima ls when ingested in large quantities. The toxins also compromise the metabolism of proteins and other micronutrients which are crucial for good health. According to Williams et al (2004), approximately 4.5 billion people living in developing countries are exposed to uncontrolled quantities of aflatoxin and other mycotoxins found in food. The disease burden is these countries which is more than 40% is further aggravated by the toxic effects of aflatoxin ingestion. The categorization of mycotoxins as a low priority risk factor for the increase in disease burden by the World Health Organization (WHO) makes it even more important to highlight the nutritional effects of the toxins on human and animal health.Current technology for the detection of mycotoxins includes the use of a variety of biosensors which have undergone a series of developments to become more accurate and sensitive. The current technologies identified by Maragos (2004) used to detect mycotoxins include the following: ev anescent wave technology, lateral flow devices, dipstick devices, fluorescence polarization, capillary electrophoretic immunoassays, microbead assays and time-resolved fluorescence. These technologies prove to be effective in laboratories and the challenge is therefore to make them competitive compared to other conventional techniques used in the field. The method used to detect mycotoxins is dependent on factors which include speed, accuracy, skills necessary and the cost of carrying out the method. Another challenge is to identify methods of detecting mycotoxins in a small scale and away from analytical laboratories.The gap in existing research concerning mycotoxins is the identification of mycotoxicosis as a hidden threat that has fatal effects on the health of human beings and animals. The technologies that exist to detect mycotoxins and the fungi which cause them are expensive and are confined to analytical laboratories which are few in number. The task is to develop innovative technologies which require less labour and which are more accessible due to reduced costs. The current technologies are still unable to enable the simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins from the same sample. This is because the different groups of mycotoxins are made up of different chemical compositions and physical properties which is also a challenge to researchers.The preliminary literature review section that follows looks at previous researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s work concerning the sources, chemistry, diseases and preventive measures for mycotoxins.Preliminary literature reviewSources of mycotoxinsMycotoxins are produced following the growth of fungi which mostly occurs in crops and agricultural products. However the toxins are not formed on all the crops since there are factors which facilitate the process. These include the level of exposure to infestation by fungi, the appropriateness of fungal substrate, climate, moisture content of crops and exposure to damage by pests and insects. The fungi which cause the production of mycotoxins in crops and seeds are divided into three categories: storage fungi, field fungi which attack plants and advanced deterioration fungi which attack seeds that have already been damaged and have high moisture content. Examples of storage fungi are Aspergillius flavus and Aspergillius parasiticus, those of field fungi are Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium roseus and Fusarium nivale while examples of advanced deterioration fungi include Aspergillius clavatus, Aspergillius fumigatus, Mucor, Absidia, Chaetomium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis (Magan Olsen, 2004).Chemistry of mycotoxinsMycotoxins vary greatly in terms of chemical structures. One of the earliest mycotoxins to be identified, ergotism, is grouped as indole alkaloids which are found on the heads of plants of the grass species such as wheat. The alkaloids are produced from a system of tetracyclic ergoline ring. There are four major Aflatoxins which are B1, B2, G1 and G2 of which Aflatoxin B1, is naturally carcinogenic. Aflatoxins are derived from difuranocoumarin which are generated by polyketides by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin consumed by cows transforms the aflatoxin B1 into hydroxulated aflatoxin M1. Fumonisins are produced through the synthesis of an amino acid known as alanine through the process of condensation. The most abundant fumonisin is fumonisin B1. Trichothecenes have a common structure of 12, 13-epoxytrichothene and an olefinic bond which has different substitutions depending on different chains. These are further classified into two groups, macrocylic or nonmacrocylic depending on the ester or ester-ether bridge between C-4 and C-15. Type A of nonmacrocylic has a hydrogen side chain on the 8th carbon position while type B contains a ketone. Zearalenone is another mycotoxin which is made up of resorcylic acid lactone or lactene, a C-1 and C-2 double bond and a C-6 ketone (Murphy et al, 2006).Foods infected by fungi that potentially deliver toxinsThe foods that are prone to infection by filamentous fungi which cause mycotoxins generally consist of seeds and grains. However, fruits and vegetables are mostly affected by the fungi Rhizopus and Mucor. Seeds containing oil such as soya, maize, sunflower, groundnuts cotton seed cake and tree nuts are mostly affected by Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins. Other foods and seeds that can be affected by mycotoxin causing fungi include coffee, rice, sweet potatoes, rice, sorghum and figs. Cows that feed on contaminated food are also known to produce milk contaminated with aflatoxin. The fusarium species of mycotoxins are known to attack plants such as corn, grasses and legumes and tomatoes.Diseases and disorders related to poisoning from mycotoxinsMycotoxins are known to cause various diseases in human beings and animals when food infected by filamentous fungi is ingested. Most of the mycotoxins ha ve been identified as being carcinogenic in humans and they also cause immune deficiency. In animals, mycotoxins are known to cause complications in the reproductive system of pigs, cancer in laboratory animals, equine eucoencephalomalacia which is a serious disease in horses and adverse effects in chickens.The major outbreaks of mycotoxins include the death of thousands of people in the UCSSR during the 1940s due to alimentary toxic aleukia, stachybotryotoxicosis which claimed the lives of thousands of cattle and horses in the same country in the 1930s and 100,000 turkeys that died in England due to aflatoxicosis (Semple et al, 2011). More recent outbreaks as documented by Schmale and Munkvold (2009) include the death of more than 75 dogs in the United States following the consumption of dog food that contained aflatoxins. Several other dogs in their hundreds suffered liver damage due to expo...

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Economic Factors That Influence Our Quality Of Life

Economic factors that influence our quality of life in Australia An economy refers to the way in which a society is systematized to solve the economic problem of the insufficiency of resources relative to the society s needs and wants involving the countries production, distribution and exchange. There are many factors or the economy that influence the standard of living in Australia. The Main Factors are Australias Economic System, The key resources of the Australian economy, and the key economic indicators including confidence, unemployment, exchange rates, economic growth and inflation. Fix this and expand properly Economies are categorized into different systems. The two broad types of economic system are the Market economy and the planned economy. Australia is a Market Economy. Economic Systems Market Economies Market economies work on the belief that supply and demand, are the best determining factors of what is right for the nation s welfare. Market economies allow market influence to drive most of their activities and decisions. They only really become involved in government interventions (for example; price fixing and subsidizations) to the extent that is needed to provide and ensure stability. The market economy is the preferred system of choice in today s marketplace however, it is debatable whether market economy allows for the correct amount of government intervention that is considered ideal for efficient economic function. Market economy producersShow MoreRelatedA Statement Of The Problem Of Service Organizations1590 Words   |  7 Pagescountry. In our country, it is the backbone of our economy in terms of creation of employment potential and contribution to the National income. The study of Quality of Working life has been an important and critical area in management and organizational performance from last several years especially in the LIC. Work is an integral part of our everyday life, as it is our livelih ood or career or business. On an average we spend around twelve hours daily in the work place that is one third of our entireRead MoreConsumer Behavior Refers to the Selection, Purchase and Consumption of Goods and Services for the Satisfaction of Their Wants1679 Words   |  7 Pagesconsume. Meanwhile, there are various other factors influencing the purchases of consumer such as social, cultural, personal and psychological. The explanation of these factors is given below. 1. Cultural Factors Consumer behavior is deeply influenced by cultural factors such as: buyer culture, subculture, and social class. †¢ Culture Basically, culture is the part of every society and is the important cause of person wants and behavior. The influence of culture on buying behavior varies from countryRead MoreInfluences on the Health of a Community1152 Words   |  5 PagesInfluences on the Health of a Community The health of a community is influenced by many factors including the social, cultural, and ethnic mix of the community, varying individual belief and moral systems, and the impact of political and economic factors to name a few. Strong social community associations, affiliations, and ties, within the interior of the community also influence the overall health of the community collective. Additional influences are the actual physical environment, surroundingsRead MoreOrganic Food : An Major Factor For The Overall Economic Growth Of India Essay1377 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: - Agriculture is the major factor for the overall economic growth of India. Organic food is a natural food, which is produced by the organic farming without use of any pesticides, synthetic fertilizers Industrial waste etc. NZ Rose apple is one of the best apple came in the varieties of apple. Rose apple has a unique rose pink color from medium to large size of variety with crispy juicy flesh and sweet flavor. NZ Organic Rose apples is a good looking apple with a sweet juicy tasteRead MoreFactors of Poverty1288 Words   |  6 PagesFactors of Poverty No one universally accepted definition of poverty exists because it is a complex and multifaceted phenomena. Poverty is borne out of economic factors that include a lack of access to secure employment, insufficient income, and a lack of assets, especially that of real-estate. There are social structural elements and psychological factors that both contribute to, and have a tendency of perpetuating poverty. While both of these contribute to poverty they are very differentRead MoreMicroeconomics And Macroeconomics Of Microeconomics1565 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Economics is an enormous field. The term economics is the broader term, however within this, there are additional fields such as microeconomics and macroeconomics. The difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics is analogous to the human body and the individual cell that makes up the human body. Macroeconomics is involved with the wide lens aspect of society. In other words, macroeconomics focuses on the broader large scale economy of a society. Macroeconomics focuses on largerRead MoreMicro and Macro Marketing946 Words   |  4 Pagesmarketing Refers to the internal controllable factors or forces which affects the ability of a company to serve its customers. e.g. the organization, the market, the suppliers, market intermediaries and the marketing mix. The micro marketing environment that surrounds organisations can be complex by nature, however the company has an element of control over how it operates within this environment. Macro marketing Refers to the external factors or forces which affects the ability of the companyRead MoreHealth Care Issues in the United States1242 Words   |  5 Pages the United States does not have a particularly high life expectancy rate. Within this paper I will discuss heath issues in the United States including how heath effects behavior, economics, and social structure. I will also include key stages of medical technology development and population demographics. Explain how health is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure. Statistical data and reports show social behavior, economic status, and social structure are important determinantsRead MoreShui Fabrics Question - Ans959 Words   |  4 PagesQuestion 1 Economic factors include economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates and the inflation rate. These factors have major impacts on how  businesses operate and make decisions.. There are economic differences that influence the relationship between the partners at Shui Fabrics. Chiu Wai operated Shanghai Fabrics LTC located in  China, before it  became a joint venture  with Rocky River Industries in the United States. When the companies became a  venture, Chiu Wai became the Deputy GeneralRead MoreWhat Are The Forces Within America That Have Shaped Our Health Care System? Essay1488 Words   |  6 Pageshave shaped our health care system? Many forces shape our current healthcare system. Our cultural belief and values shape our views on our social, political, and economic exigencies. While our beliefs and values usually represent basic or core impressions of individuals in our society, they are constantly changing. Thus, they lend a sense of dynamism to our health care system. Our cultural beliefs and values also impact our sense of ethics, which also influences how we allocate our health resources

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Tablets Fun or an Easy Way Out - 858 Words

Teenagers now remember the days where they played outside with the sun shining down on them as kids, and the grainy feel of the warm concrete under their bare feet. Ten years from now teenagers will remember their childhood years as pixels and cathodes. Tablets and eReaders are taking over the newer generation and making their ways into our schools and personal lives more often than not. Our life is changing drastically day by day thanks to the advancing technology. Tablets are being over used and run down because of our technology dependent society, and consumers do not realize the risks it has on their personal and school lives. Tablets are used by most students and teachers across America. Like most new things, there are mixed feelings about the new technological device. This new technology may allow teachers to better target students’ individual academic levels and learning styles, and engage students who often are bored by the more traditional style of teaching (Banchero and Phillips). Teachers will be able to change and personalize their lesson plans even more than before. With the new tablets schools are slowly receiving, teachers are exhaling a sigh of comfort because of the less work it grants them. Teachers can watch students writing essays in real time and shoot one a note if she failed to write a proper introduction and another separate note if she used improper punctuation (Banchero and Phillips). Not all teachers are liking the idea of tablets takingShow MoreRelatedTablets Essay1194 Words   |  5 Pages Tablets have exploded in popularity over the last year, due in large part to a new crop of fast tablet computers from companies like Apple, Motorola and Asus. Heres a quick guide to help you know what to look for when choosing a tablet and which features really arent that important. Operating System. Tablets generally use a mobile operating system, which allows for a customized experience, since most mobile operating systems are already designed with touchscreens in mind. The iPad uses iOS,Read MoreTablets vs. Textbooks1698 Words   |  7 PagesTablets vs. Textbooks During the 21st century, humans have developed the scientific technologies more rapidly than ever before. And the way of their lives is also changing according to the change of new technologies. Nowadays, we can easily see the people who are holding tablets with their hands around our place. A tablet is simply a mobile computer that is small, portable, and easy to use with just two fingers. Since it has been recognized for its usefulness and utility, many students study andRead MoreCase Study And Watch The Video Posted Below883 Words   |  4 Pages(2) steps that you believe Tropicana should take in its branding strategy in order to use the straw in the orange as effectively as possible. Provide a rationale for your response and do not duplicate your classmates’ responses. There are various ways to take this situation with Tropicana new look. By spending $35 million to see if customers like the change in the look of their brand really was an expensive adventure. But in the information gathered from this experiment was new awareness thatRead MoreUsing Technology As An Instructional Tool1424 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"If a child does not learn the way I teach, I must teach the way he/she learns,† Jacquie McTaggart used in her title of a book written for teachers by a teacher. A quote in which every teacher should value. It is easy to force a student to listen, but it is not easy to force a student to understand. It states that students all have different learning styles and the teacher should be able to figure out the best way for students to understand intellectually and embrace the challenges of learning forRead MoreIntegrating Tablets into Schools Essay1161 Words   |  5 Pagesbut tablets can. Tablets are the new technology that schools ne ed to introduce to the students more so that they can keep up with technology. They are small and can find in any good sized bag and are quick to turn on for easy access. Also now that tablets are out of the testing state and are being upgrade to better quality and easier to navigate and learn, this would be a good time for schools to invest into tablets. Students already use cellphones in class so why not replace it with a tablet to keepRead MoreInstalling A Custom Rom On The Sony Xperia Z2 Tablet864 Words   |  4 Pagesto install a custom ROM on the Sony Xperia z2 Tablet because it allows them to update to the latest version of Android -- or at least something newer than was last rolled out by the phone carrier networks. Most manufacturers like Sony will not update older devices in the fear that people will never have a reason to buy new smartphones and tablets. The Android operating system is still one of the best features you get with your smartphone and tablets, and that make s sense since it s the operatingRead MoreShould Textbooks Be Used Over Textbooks Essay1410 Words   |  6 Pageshis/her education; therefore, tablets/computers should be used over textbooks. There are multiple advantages and disadvantages to taking textbooks out of classrooms throughout the United States. One of the biggest advantages in the use of tablets/computers over textbooks is the ability to record and monitor cheating in a more formal way. For example, a large variety of schools through the United States use programs such as GoGuardian to monitor students while on tablets/computers. These programs mayRead MoreCity Of Fountains : Creativity And Inspiration1669 Words   |  7 Pagesincluding descriptions of water pressure and how things of the liking work. Visitors will also be able to control and experiment with water pressure. Technology: There will be an attraction placed in the center where visitors will be welcome to use the tablets provided to use an app made specifically for the exhibit to design fountains, learn facts, and take quizzes about the fountains in the exhibit. Engineering: The exhibit encompasses the engineering aspect of how fountains are made and how they workRead MoreTechnology And Modern Technology1392 Words   |  6 PagesSavanna loves having touch screens in her little hands, but it makes me wonder if her childhood could be wasted on the constantly developing technology of today. When I was a child, it was typical to go outside, get a little dirty, run around and have fun outside. Sadly, not all children are the same. How will these children feel? Will they be glad they were a part of the â€Å"app generation† or will they regret it later on? A child’s connection to this new technology is the deciding factor in the futureRead MoreConsumers Perception of a Brand Image Incredibly Relevant1297 Words   |  6 Pagesand Mahajan (2003) discuss the importance of not just economic switching costs but the costs of social and knowledge switching costs. That’s why its importance through marketing, Microsoft not only appeals to students but also educates them on the ways of Windows 8. The interactive factor of hosting a university event will allow students to sample and play with Windows 8 for free and to get the feel of the tangible product. The education and chance to trial Windows 8 can positively influence their

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Value At Risk Measurement Of Market Risk Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 1047 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? A credit rating tells the lender or investor the probability of a subject being able to pay back the loan. In the U.S the ratings are widespread, 94% of the SP 500 are rated, so this approach are thought to improve capital allocation.In Europe, only 53% of DAX-30 firms obtained a credit rating.Therefore credit ratings definitely will not work in this setting. Moreover, firms of lower credit ratings such as BB- and below, require 150% for the risk weight whereas unrated firms only incur a 100% risk weight. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Value At Risk Measurement Of Market Risk Finance Essay" essay for you Create order This creates an incentive for firms who believes they will achieve a lower credit rating to remain unrated in order to achieve cheaper financing. Credit rating agency has been subjected to many criticisms themselves. One of the most important criticisms which partly led to the financial crisis is the errors in their method for rating structured products, particularly in assigning AAA ratings to structured debt, which in a large number of cases has subsequently been downgraded or defaulted.Many argued that it is because rating complex structured products is very difficult. However,if it is just difficult there should be a balance of overrated and underrated structured products. There had been persistent bias which shows the rating seems to systematically over-estimate the creditworthiness of the rated instrument.  [2]  One of the reasons that SEC found out in their 10 month investigation is because of conflict of interest as they were paid by investment banks and other firms th at organize and sell structured securities to investors.  [3]  This has cause problems for financial institiutions as shown in financial crisis when ratings dramatically fall from AAA to below investment grade during the subprime crisis. Under Basel II, banks who initially only required capital allocation of only 0.6% due to an AAA rated securitization now requires 52% capital allocation as it downgrades to BB- rated securitization. Financial institiutions who did not hold enough money in reserves to safeguard themselves from downgrades would have to be bailed out by governments. Credit agencies do not downgrade the companies promptly enough. For example, Enrons rating remained at investment grade four days before the company went bankrupt, despite the fact that credit rating agencies had been aware of the companys problems for months.  [4]  This lag can be explained by the agencies reliance on accounting data, their inability to monitor all issuers continuously and their willingness to change only when they know the decision on the issuer will not change in the near future.However to forecast risk under Basel II, banking supervisors should not use past months ratings to rate their own credit risk as it will be inaccurate. Therefore credit rating agencies had to improve by constantly updating their rating system and improve their credibility before being able to be used to evaluate credit risk for firms effectively. Value at Risk measurement inapprorpriate to measure market risk Basel II requires financial institutions to use the 10 day VaR at 99% confidence interval as a risk metric to measure market risk. VaR is communicated as the maximum loss of a particular portfolio at a particular point (confidence interval) in an underlying asset returnsà ¢ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ distribution, over a given timeframe (the holding period).Since it is only measured to 99% confidence interval, losses beyond the region will not be accounted for in the minimum capital requirement.. Our group believes bank shareholders and managers uses this measurement as they do not bear losses above and beyond bankà ¢ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢s capital. However this is not appropriate for bank regulators, as the losses in excess are funded by public authorities. Critics believe not incorporating the tail VaR destabilizes the economy and induced the crashes in the financial system  [5]  . However we fee ls that if tail VaR is accounted for, the capital requirement for the banks will be too large and this will slow down the economy as investments will decrease. Ineffective implementation of own risk models Under the Basel II framework, regulators allow large banks with sophisticated risk management systems to do risk assessment based on their own models to determine the minimum amount of regulatory capital. This is allowed because Basel II regulators believe own bank supervisors know their bank best. However the recent financial crisis proves otherwise. The need of recapitalization reveals that the internal risk models of many banks performed poorly and greatly under-estimated risk exposure, forcing banks to reassess and reprice their credit risk. This happens because there are no independent measures to assess the bank risk model. The banks could do what they thing is reasonable and it would be hard for anyone to fault them. By underestimating risk exposure, it allows the bank to increase their lending limits and thus earn more revenue for the company. However, we have to take note that mathematical models have limited predictive power in finance and the difficulties in accounting f or low probability but high losses events. Procyclical Basel II is being criticized of being procyclical. During the boom times, credit ratings will be better as their probability of default is lower. This allows the bank to have lower capital requirements under Basel II thus even the badly managed banks with inadequate capital and provisions initially can expand their business, resulting in overlending . However during the bad times, banks require a higher capital requirement as the credit ratings dropped due to increased risk. Difficulties in raising new capital further add on to their capital constraints during downturns. This causes institutions to reduce credit to firms and households and thus forced to cut lending when it is most needed. Faced with higher interest rates and lack of alternative sources of finance, firms will cutback on investment spending thereby aggravating the downturn. This is evident during the global economic recession whereby international trade has been severely affected, with trade volumes actually contrac ting by about 12% in 2009.This is associated due to the massive decline in trade financing  [6]  . Inconsistency in implementation of Basel II Basel II is being applied inconsistently around the world, and even within individual markets, leading to very different risk weights and capital charges for identical assets. Basel II is too accommodating on certain risk categories, especially trading risk and sub-prime mortgage. It fails to recognize that the enforcement of a common approach to risk management enhances the homogeneity of the behavior of market participants and hence exacerbates financial crisis.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Theory Of Divine Right - 1330 Words

Throughout history, new ideas have always been formed from questions and different questions create new ideas. These five documents- â€Å"The Theory of Divine Right,† â€Å"Revocation of the Edict of Nantes,† The Social Contract, What is Enlightenment?, and The Declaration of Independence- each discuss a different idea and are substantial in the demonstration of this idea. These ideas have many differences and similarities. They may be significant in different revolutions, but they all pertain to different views on topics that, while they could be linked together, are fundamentally unalike the others. Each of these documents is important to history in more than one way. While they may seem to be significant in only the simplest way, each of them have a deeper importance that can be seen when they are studied in depth. In â€Å"The Theory of Divine Right,† Jacques-BÃ' nigue Bossuet claims that kings are anointed by God and are sacred. He also says that, as Godly rulers, kings should be paternal toward their subjects. He says â€Å"We have seen that kings take the place of God, who is the true father of the human species. We have also seen that the first idea of power which exists among men is that of the paternal power; and that kings are modeled on fathers.† Bossuet claims that kings and princes are supposed to act as ministers of God, and rule with paternal goodness. He writes â€Å"Thus princes act as ministers of God, and as his lieutenants on earth. It is by them that he exercises his rule. ThusShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Divine Right945 Words   |  4 Pagesover his people and country, and no one ever questioned it because no one ever mistrusted the will of God. However, when a king begins to seem unfit to rule over his people, the people do begin to question all that they have ever known. The theory of divine right states that a monarchial government is the only way to lead. According to Jacques-Bà ©nigne Bossuet, â€Å"If it is the most natural, it is consequently the most durable and from that it follows also the strongest,† (479) meaning if the system isRead MoreThe Theory Of Divine Right935 Words   |  4 PagesJacques Bossuet the writer of â€Å"The Theory of Divine Right† lived from 1627 to 1704. He was known by many as a famous public speaker and a vivid scholar. He believed that kings ruled by divine right, and that monarchy was the political system intended by God. Monarchial government is the most natural, tough, and from that the sturdiest. It is also most against to separate, causing dreadful evil of states, and the main cause of their ruin. Which gives us the meaning of this quote, â€Å"Every kingdomRead MoreThe Divine Command theory of ethics is a theory that states that an act is right or wrong and good700 Words   |  3 PagesThe Divine Command theory of ethics is a theory that states that an act is right or wrong and good or bad based on whether or not God commands or prohibits us from doing it. This means that the only thing that makes an action morally wrong is because God says it is. There are two sides to this theory; the restricted and the unrestricted. The restricted theory basically says that an action is obligatory if and only if it is good and God commanded it; the unrestricted theory states that an act is onlyRead MoreThe Divine Command Theory And Euthyphro Problem Essay974 Words   |  4 PagesIn this paper, I will discuss about the Divine Command Theory and Euthyphro Problem and show how the Euthyphro Problem makes the Divine Command Theory morality arbitrary. Also, I will discuss why one does not have to reject the belief in God due to the Divine Command Theory cannot give a satisfactory answer to the Euthyphro Problem. First, I will define what the Divine Command Theory is and discuss its att ractive features that answer the problem about the objectivity of ethnics. Second, I will defineRead MoreThe Divine Command Theory : Capital Punishment And Abortion Essay1128 Words   |  5 PagesThe Divine Command Theory is the assertion in ethics that an action is morally right if, and only if, it conforms to God’s will. This premise ties together morality and religion in a manner that seems expected, since it provides a solution to arguments about moral relativism and the objectivity of ethics. On the other hand, in Plato’s Euthyphro, Socrates questions whether something is right because God commands it, or whether God commands it because it is right. The ethical implications of theRead MoreJohn O’Keefe. Net Id: Jjo85. Word Count: 1,369. All Actions1381 Words   |  6 Pagesunrestricted version of the divine command theory which is a moral theory based on God’s commands and their relation to morality. Does God command what is right or is what is r ight commanded by God? There exists a version of the divine command theory that avoids all the contradictions that can arise from the application of the Euthyphro dilemma to the unrestricted divine command theory, and that is what this paper will discuss. Before delving into this restricted version of the theory it is first necessaryRead MoreReligion And Morality On The Hunt Of Finding The Author Of What We Know As Social Norms952 Words   |  4 Pagesauthor of what we know as social norms. In this philosophy paper, we will discuss the origin and evolution of the Divine Command Theory and we will analyze an objections against this theory cited by Plato (Atenas, 427 - 347 a. C.) who states: morality and moral obligations ultimately do not depend on God. First of all, we will discuss the origin end evolution of Divine Command Theory. There are three central assumptions about the correlation between morality and religion. We may focus on one outRead MoreDivine Command Theory, Deontology, And Virtue Ethics1618 Words   |  7 Pagesethical questions which we encounter. That being, divine command theory, utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics all provide adequate insight to everyday morality. There are flaws and strengths to each and every one of these concepts. However, divine command theory proves to provide the most requisite intellect with minute disfigurement. Divine command theory offers a chance at a purposeful reason to undertake morality with the right manor. This theory also represents a constant state of rules thatRead MoreThe Doctrine Of The Divine Command Theory1377 Words   |  6 Pagessome of the most thought provoking theories and ideas from some of the greatest philosophers. One of those theories is the Divine C ommand theory. The Divine Command theory tries to explain the relation between God and what is morally correct and there have been many philosophers who have taken very opposing views on the theory in order to determine of society should accept this theory. According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Divine Command theory is â€Å"the view that morality is somehowRead MoreBy Jove: A Brief Look at Polytheistic Divine Command Theory1635 Words   |  7 PagesSophocles’ famous play â€Å"Antigone† highlights a problem in what was then the prevalent worldview for most pious Greeks, that of Divine Command Theory. Divine Command Theory is a philosophical paradigm, or worldview, which essentially states that an action is good if and only if it has been commanded by a divine entity, which, to quote St. Thomas Aquinas, â€Å"all men know as God.† The problem arises in what happens when there exist multiple deities, such as is the case with the Greek and Roman pantheons

Historical Development of Hr Manager (Ireland) Free Essays

Historical Development of Hr Manager (Ireland) In explaining the historical development of the personnel function of the Hr manager, I will begin by giving a brief description of the 6 different types of personnel manager: The Social Reformer Before personnel emerged as a specialist management activity at the beginning of the 20th century there were those who intervened in industrial affairs to support the severely under privileged factory workers. The Acolyte of benevolence The first people appointed with specific responsibility for improving the lot of the employees were welfare officers who saw there role as dispensing benefits to the deserving and unfortunate employees. The motivation was the christian charity of paternalist employers who provided these comforts, partly because employees deserved them, but mainly because he was willing to provide them. We will write a custom essay sample on Historical Development of Hr Manager (Ireland) or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Humane Bureaucrat The first 2 phases were concerned predominantly with the physical environment of the work and the amelioration of hardship among â€Å"the workers† . As organisations increased there size, specialisation was emerging in the management levels as well as on the shop floor. This led to the growth of personnel work on staffing the organisation, with great concern about role specification, selection. Training and placement. The consensus negotiator Personnel managers next added expertise in bargaining to there repetoire of skills. Where the personnel manager could at best be described as a remembrancer of the employees the trader union official could be their accredited representative. Organization man Then came a development of the humane bureaucracy phase into preoccupation with the effectiveness of the organization as a whole, which should have clear objectives and a wide spread commitment among organisation members to those objectives. The approach was also characterised by candour between members and a form of operation supporting the integrity of the individual and providing opportunities for personal growth. Manpower Analyst The last distinct historical stereotype was the manpower analyst. The humane bureaucrat was concerned to get a good fit between a particular worker and a particular job: Employees were individuals. Next I will give a brief outline of the different eras in the development of the Hr manager in Ireland. 1940s and 1950s: The Welfare Stage It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when personnel management first appeared in Ireland. Barrington (1980:90) indicates that a personnel function had been established in the civil service after the First World War, but its official recognition in the private sector is probably best dated from the setting up of an Irish branch of the Institute of Labour Management, the forerunner of the Institute of Personnel Management (IPM), in Dublin in 1937. The meetings of the Institute of Labour Management were held in the recreation hall attached to the Jacob’s Biscuit Factory and were attended by a small group of individuals, mainly women, who acted as welfare supervisors in Dublin factories such as Wills, Maguire and Patersons, Williams and Woods and Jacob’s. These companies had strong Quaker traditions and were concerned with the health and well-being of their employees. The second issue which emerges from an analysis of the foundations of personnel management is its dominance in the early years by women. This appears to have resulted in difficulties for both men and women intent on careers in personnel management. For men there was the worry of developing a career in a profession with a female image. However, for many men this dilemma was resolved by the industrial relations focus which was to emerge in the 1970s in which bargaining and negotiating with trade unions became very much a male preserve and one with a much more dynamic image. For women the incursion of men into personnel management has created long-term problems. The 1960s: Growth and DevelopmentPersonnel management grew slowly in the 1950s and 1960s in Ireland; then as now the fate of personnel function was inextricably entwined with economic developments The 1970s: The Industrial Relations EraPersonnel management grew steadily during the late 1960s and early 1970s. A survey by the Irish Management Institute (Gorman et al. , 1974) estimated that the number of personnel managers working in firms with over 20 employees increased from around 100 to about 400 between 1964 and 1973. Throughout the 1970s this growth continued so that by 1981 there were an estimated 770 private sector firms with a designated personnel office. The main areas of activity associated with the personnel function were outlined in a submission by the IPM to the Commission: manpower planning; recruitment and selection; employee evaluation, training and development, career development promotion etc. ; remuneration and benefits; industrial relations (i. e. policy and practices in relationships with unions and union representatives, procedure agreements covering recognition, disputes, grievances, redundancy, etc. negotiations with full-time officials and with shop stewards); employee communications and consultation; organisation development (i. e. organisation and job design, various approaches to securing higher employee involvement and motivation, opinion surveys and survey feedback, etc. ); personnel administration – contracts, attendance, turnover, medical and welfare facilities, safety at work, employee performance indices etc. The 1980s: Cost CutterBy the 1980s, personnel departments were well established in Irish organisations. A survey by Murray (1984: 21) of 141 manufacturing firms found that 74 per cent had a personnel function and that the status of the personnel function appeared confirmed with many personnel managers having access to top management decisions. The economic difficulties of this decade are reflected in the themes of the IPM’s annual conferences. In 1983 this was ‘Survival Management’; in 1984 it was ‘Job Loss: the Price of Being Competitive’; in 1985: Social and Political Change: the Implications for Personnel Management; in 1986 ‘The Uncertain Future’; and in 1987 ‘Meeting the Challenge’. The 1990s: Strategic Planner and Business ManagerThe 1990s have seen attention turn to the roles that the personnel practitioner might play as business manager and human resource specialist, these roles involving an active contribution to ‘competitive advantage’. The historical analysis of the development of the personnel management role raises several critical issues. Is there a dominant role in Irish organisations in the mid 1990s? Do the roles which have developed over time co-exist or have some disappeared? Are some roles better than others and, if this is the case, better for whom? A superficial analysis of the situation suggests that there has been a great deal of continuity in personnel management over the years and that the issues that have concerned the personnel manager and the personnel profession have remained remarkably constant, although perhaps portrayed using very different language. The analysis has revealed that many of the challenges facing the personnel practitioner have remained constant and the need to manage the employment relationship, no matter the terminology that is used to describe this relationship, is one which is central to the personnel role. The management of the psychological contract as a critical issue for the 1990s may represent for the personnel profession a return to its roots. Now we’ll examine the emergence of the Hr manager as a professional. Some industry commentators call the Human Resources function the last bastion of bureaucracy. Traditionally, the role of the Human Resource professional in many organizations has been to serve as the systematizing, policing arm of executive management. In this role, the HR professional served executive agendas well, but was frequently viewed as a road block by much of the rest of the organization. The importance of the human resource function has become evident especially with the onset of global competition. Not only do human resource managers have to think more strategically and in step with corporate planning managers, they have had to address real and hard issues about the impact of intense competition on employment stability. It is one thing to think with executives on how the human resource section can support corporate activities. It is another to actually implement cost-savings policies with regards employment. The role of the Hr manager must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptive, resilient, quick to change direction and customer-centered. Within this environment, the HR professional, who is considered necessary by line managers, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate and a change mentor. HR directors, and occasionally HR managers, may head up several different departments that are each led by functional or specialized HR staff such as the training manager, the compensation manager, or the recruiting manager. Human Resources staff members are advocates for both the company and the people who work in the company. Consequently, a good HR professional performs a constant balancing act to meet both needs successfully. The role of the HR professional is changing. In the past, HR managers were often viewed as the systematizing, policing arm of executive management. Their role was more closely aligned with personnel and administration functions that were viewed by the organization as paperwork. When you consider that the initial HR function, in many companies, comes out of the administration or finance department because hiring employees, paying employees, and dealing with benefits were the organization’s first HR needs, this is not surprising. In this role, the HR professional served executive agendas well, but was frequently viewed as a road block by much of the rest of the organization. The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, quick to change direction, and customer-centered. Within this environment, the HR professional, who is considered necessary by line managers, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate and a change mentor. At the same time, especially the HR Generalist, still has responsibility for employee benefits administration, often payroll, and employee paperwork, especially in the absence of an Hr assistant. Depending on the size of the organization, the HR manager has responsibility for all of the functions that deal with the needs and activities of the organization’s people including these areas of responsibility. David O’Callaghan Carrigaline 2009 How to cite Historical Development of Hr Manager (Ireland), Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Creative product free essay sample

In this task I am going to be speaking about and explaining a successful promotional campaign. The campaign I will be speaking about is the ‘whopper sacrifice’. The whopper sacrifice is a Burger King advertising campaign on Facebook that promised a coupon for a free hamburger if participants deleted 10 people from their ‘friends’ lists on the social network. I would class a good advertising campaign as: it is aimed at the target audience and uses the most effective medium for them. It should raise the awareness of the business and also increase the publics estimation of its importance. The main message must be the most prominent one, the one that stays in your head. The main types of advertising media are as follows: television, printed (newspaper, magazines etc ), press coverage, billboards, radio, in store, social media, emails and paid searches (i. e. paying google to advertise you on certain searches) I think burger king’s whopper sacrifice was a huge success: the Facebook application was installed nearly 60,000 times in a matter of days, nearly 20,000 Whopper coupons were sent out, and well over 200,000 Facebook friends were deleted. We will write a custom essay sample on Creative product or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Facebook members even created unofficial groups, offering to let other members add them as friends and then delete them for Whopper Sacrifice purposes. In an interview, Brian Gies, vice president for marketing for the fast-food chain; Burger-King, said Burger King intended to limit the promotion to 25,000 Whopper coupons. I think he did this because he doesn’t want to lose too many burgers for one, and also because that is a lot of people who have just put Burger King in their good books and this should lead to good word of mouth and should maximise sales at some point. Why use Facebook for advertising a marketing campaign? Social media is everywhere. It certainly creates challenges but it also creates a great deal of opportunity for businesses that devote the time to creating social media plans and following them through. Here are a few of the reasons why businesses use social media platforms of some type: Total Reach: Few types of marketplaces offers the total reach that social media does to burger King. Stats require constant upgrading, but Facebook claims to have over 500 million active users, twitter has over 75 million accounts and LinkedIn near 80 million members. And it’s not just kids: Facebook users have an average age of 38. Establishing Expertise: Blatant advertising doesn’t work in many social media platforms especially not from pitches instead of discussions but by posing questions, publishing useful content, and answering others’ questions, you can develop a following and burger king have done something similar to this, created a ‘group’ Niche Markets: Reach people in a space where they’re already comfortable and spending their time. By choosing the right platforms and groups, you can invest your time in developing relationships with exactly the right markets, such as Facebook groups who all like American cuisine or something similar. Free Exposure: While there are some intriguing advert buy options with Facebook depending on your goal and industry, traditional social media exposure carries zero cost. Creating a great presence requires a lot of time and effort, but it’s something you can do without any out-of-pocket costs. Loved by Search Engines: If all of the above weren’t enough, the search engines love many social media platforms. By building an effective presence on Facebook, LinkedIn, or twitter, you can use these profiles to help optimize your main website, even if it not the website you’re trying to promote. If Burger King didn’t pick social media as their primary type of promotion, they could have picked something like television adverts. People who see television adverts are watching TV, people who can actually be bothered to go on Facebook to check this out are probably not watching TV, so this might not work out. Although, some people will go on Facebook even though their favourite program is just about to come back on whilst the adverts finish up, they would go on Facebook and go through with burger king’s promotion, but I just think it would be a lot more convenient as a potential customer to just be reminded next time they’re surfing on the FB. Overall I think that burger king was right to use social media as their media choice in this successful promotional campaign. I think this because of the reasons and all of the advantages that I have spoken about above. These are not, though, the only reasons, there are many more such as ANYBODY out of 500 Million people are open to this campaign and I just think that overall, no other media type could have resulted in success in this particular campaign as much as web based/social media could have. Factors which companies must consider when deciding on which type of media to use for a promotional campaign: Coverage: Otherwise called reach, expressed as a percentage, reach is the number of individuals (or homes) to expose the product to through media scheduled over  a period of time you need to consider this when choosing a type of media because if you are a large business like Apple then you will be aiming for a large coverage, yet if you’re taste of Lahore, then you may not be aiming for huge coverage, you may not even want television ads, because when you’re a small business all you need to do is make sure your customer base is susceptible to seeing your promotional campaign and t his number of people could be as small as 1000 people. Taste of Lahore only need to make posters on their windows, signs on their delivery vehicles and menus to promote really. Cost: companies also need to be considering how much it is going to cost to be able to do certain things as a method of promotion. They all have different prices and some are hugely expensive whereas some are rather affordable for a sole trader. Depending on how much you have in your budget, you will be limited to certain types of media Target Market: target market is also a large factor for businesses that are picking a medium for their promotional campaign. They need to decide which media is going to be the best to reach the target market that they have Many business people are convinced that by casting a big net, they’ll catch more fish (customers). But the audiences — especially when using television, radio, newspapers and outdoor, are so large and diverse that your message rarely stands out. And when it does stand out, it’s often for the wrong reasons, so it is very important to know who you want to see it, and then tailor it to them. Focus of Appeal: for some businesses they are technically revolving around a certain one of our senses, such as McDonalds revolving around our sense of taste. McDonalds craft their adverts carefully to focus their appeal to our tongues this is what you have to do in a lot of businesses. Some businesses like Marks and Spencer use radio adverts to appeal to your sense of taste through your sense of sound.